How do you detect hypertrophy on ECG

Left ventricular hypertrophy can be diagnosed on ECG with good specificity. When the myocardium is hypertrophied, there is a larger mass of myocardium for electrical activation to pass through; thus the amplitude of the QRS complex, representing ventricular depolarization, is increased.

How is ECG hypertrophy calculated?

  1. There are numerous voltage criteria for diagnosing LVH, summarised below.
  2. The most commonly used are the Sokolov-Lyon criteria: S wave depth in V1 + tallest R wave height in V5-V6 > 35 mm.
  3. Voltage criteria must be accompanied by non-voltage criteria to be considered diagnostic of LVH.

Which ECG leads represent LVH?

Therefore, EKG manifestations of LVH are represented by large amplitude QRS complexes. The EKG leads that represent the left ventricle are V5, V6, I and AvL (see figure).

How does an ECG show right ventricular hypertrophy?

RVH is diagnosed on ECG in the presence of a R/S ratio of greater than 1 in lead V1 in the absence of other causes, or if the R wave in lead V1 is greater than 7 millimeters tall. The strain pattern occurs when the right ventricular wall is quite thick, and the pressure is high, as well.

How is left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed?

  1. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). Electrical signals are recorded as they travel through your heart. …
  2. Echocardiogram. Sound waves produce live-action images of your heart. …
  3. MRI. Images of your heart can be used to diagnose left ventricular hypertrophy.

What should be checked in ECG report?

  1. Confirm details.
  2. Heart rate.
  3. Heart rhythm.
  4. Cardiac axis.
  5. P waves.
  6. PR interval.
  7. QRS complex.
  8. ST segment.

What is the S wave on an ECG?

The S wave is the first downward deflection of the QRS complex that occurs after the R wave. However, a S wave may not be present in all ECG leads in a given patient. In the normal ECG, there is a large S wave in V1 that progressively becomes smaller, to the point that almost no S wave is present in V6.

What is ventricular hypertrophy?

Left ventricular hypertrophy is a thickening of the wall of the heart’s main pumping chamber. This thickening may result in elevation of pressure within the heart and sometimes poor pumping action. The most common cause is high blood pressure.

Which type of ECG changes are associated with right ventricular hypertrophy?

  • V1 and V2 shows larger R-waves and smaller S-waves. …
  • rSR’ pattern is occasionally seen in V1–V2. …
  • Secondary ST-T changes are common in V1–V3. …
  • V5, V6, I and aVL displays smaller R-waves than normal. …
  • The electrical axis is virtually always shifted to the right.
What is right ventricular hypertrophy?

Introduction. Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is an abnormal enlargement or pathologic increase in muscle mass of the right ventricle in response to pressure overload, most commonly due to severe lung disease.

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What is cardiac hypertrophy?

Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to pressure or volume stress, mutations of sarcomeric (or other) proteins, or loss of contractile mass from prior infarction. Hypertrophic growth accompanies many forms of heart disease, including ischemic disease, hypertension, heart failure, and valvular disease.

Can an EKG detect an enlarged heart?

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to assess the heart rate and rhythm. This test can often detect heart disease, heart attack, an enlarged heart, or abnormal heart rhythms that may cause heart failure. Chest X-ray to see if the heart is enlarged and if the lungs are congested with fluid.

What is the cause of cardiac hypertrophy?

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is usually caused by abnormal genes (gene mutations) that cause the heart muscle to grow abnormally thick. In most people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the muscular wall (septum) between the two bottom chambers of the heart (ventricles) becomes thicker than normal.

What is AP wave ECG?

The P wave and PR segment is an integral part of an electrocardiogram (ECG). It represents the electrical depolarization of the atria of the heart. It is typically a small positive deflection from the isoelectric baseline that occurs just before the QRS complex.

What is r prime in ECG?

An electrocardiographic finding in which there are two R waves, which are two deflections above the baseline resulting from a single ventricular depolarization. The first upward deflection in the complex is the R wave. The S is the first downward deflection. A second upward deflection is called the R-prime wave. [

What does l wave stand for?

noun Geology. an earthquake wave that travels around the earth’s surface and is usually the third conspicuous wave to reach a seismograph. Also called long wave .

How do you read and interpret an ECG?

When interpreting the heart rhythm, you should look for P waves, which is a sign of atrial excitation. When every P wave is followed by a QRS complex, the ECG shows sinus rhythm. If the P waves are irregular, sinus arrhythmia is likely present.

What are symptoms of right ventricular hypertrophy?

  • chest pain/pressure.
  • dizziness.
  • fainting.
  • shortness of breath.
  • swelling in the lower extremities, such as the ankles, feet, and legs.

How does right ventricular hypertrophy cause right axis deviation?

Right ventricular hypertrophy Enlargement of right ventricular myocardial mass can result in right axis deviation. There are 2 main reasons for this mechanism. Firstly, more muscle mass will result in greater amplitude of depolarisation of that side of the heart.

Is cardiac hypertrophy good?

While hypertrophy can eventually normalize wall tension, it is associated with an unfavorable outcome and threatens affected patients with sudden death or progression to overt heart failure.

Is Left ventricular hypertrophy the same as cardiomyopathy?

Observational Model:Case-ControlTime Perspective:Prospective

Is thickening of the heart wall reversible?

Treatment. There is no treatment which can reverse the changes of the heart muscle. Treatment aims to ease symptoms if they occur and to prevent complications. If you do not have any symptoms or you only have mild symptoms then you may not need any treatment.

Does mitral regurgitation cause left ventricular hypertrophy?

Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2008 Sep;118(9):478-83.

Which side of the heart is thicker?

The left ventricle of your heart is larger and thicker than the right ventricle. This is because it has to pump the blood further around the body, and against higher pressure, compared with the right ventricle.

Is ventricular hypertrophy reversible?

The Framingham Heart Study has shown that LVH is reversible and responds well to the lowering of blood pressure.

What are the two types of hypertrophy?

  • myofibrillar: growth of muscle contraction parts.
  • sarcoplasmic: increased muscle glycogen storage.

What prevents hypertrophy?

Compound movements, such as squats, are effective for building muscle. It is also necessary to progressively increase the resistance over time. Staying on the same weight for too long will not challenge the muscles and will prevent hypertrophy.

What is the best test to check for heart problems?

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). An ECG is a quick and painless test that records the electrical signals in your heart. …
  • Holter monitoring. …
  • Echocardiogram. …
  • Stress test. …
  • Cardiac catheterization. …
  • Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan. …
  • Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Can ECG detect angina?

Diagnosing angina Your doctor can suspect a diagnosis of angina based on your description of your symptoms, when they appear and your risk factors for coronary artery disease. Your doctor will likely first do an electrocardiogram (ECG) to help determine what additional testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis.

Are EKG and ECG the same?

An electrocardiogram records the electrical signals in your heart. It’s a common and painless test used to quickly detect heart problems and monitor your heart’s health. Electrocardiograms — also called ECGs or EKGs — are often done in a doctor’s office, a clinic or a hospital room.

Can high blood pressure cause thickening of the heart?

High blood pressure means the pressure inside the blood vessels (called arteries) is too high. As the heart pumps against this pressure, it must work harder. Over time, this causes the heart muscle to thicken. Because there are often no symptoms with high blood pressure, people can have the problem without knowing it.