What are risk factors in criminology

What Is a Risk Factor? Risk factors have been broadly defined as “those characteristics, variables, or hazards that, if present for a given individual, make it more likely that this individual, rather than someone selected from the general population, will develop a disorder” (Mrazek and Haggerty, 1994:127).

What is an example of risk factors?

Risk factor: Something that increases a person’s chances of developing a disease. For example, cigarette smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer, and obesity is a risk factor for heart disease.

What are risk factors and protective factors?

Risk factors are characteristics at the biological, psychological, family, community, or cultural level that precede and are associated with a higher likelihood of negative outcomes. Protective factors are characteristics associated with a lower likelihood of negative outcomes or that reduce a risk factor’s impact.

What are risk factors in offending?

Risk factors are described as anything that increases the probability that a person will suffer harm (Wasserman & Miller, 1998). Within the context of serious offending, a risk factor is anything that increases the chances of an individual perpetrating an offence and can, therefore, include a multitude of variables.

What are 6 risk factors for violence?

These risk factors are poverty, family violence, exposure to media violence, availability of weapons, drug abuse, and membership in gangs.

What are the 3 types of risk factors?

Physical risk factors, and. Psychosocial, personal and other risk factors.

What are the 5 risk factors?

  • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension). High blood pressure increases your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. …
  • High Blood Cholesterol. One of the major risk factors for heart disease is high blood cholesterol. …
  • Diabetes. …
  • Obesity and Overweight. …
  • Smoking. …
  • Physical Inactivity. …
  • Gender. …
  • Heredity.

What are low risk offenders?

Minimum risk offender or a low risk offender refers to a criminal offender who has lesser tendencies to re-offend and is of minimal risk to the community. In most of the cases they may be first time offenders. … When supervised in the community, they are watched less closely than the high risk offenders.

What is dynamic risk factors?

Unlike static risk factors, dynamic risk factors are defined by their ability to change throughout the life course. Examples of these factors include unemployment and peer group influences. … It is ultimately most important to identify dynamic risk factors that have causal rather than predictive associations.

What are risk factors that demonstrate a juvenile may reoffend?

such as impulsivity and risk taking, family distress, school failure, and peer influence, are, by and large, similar to those experienced by all youth caught up in delinquent behavior and in the juvenile justice system.

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What are the 6 protective factors?

  • Nurturing and attachment.
  • Knowledge of parenting and child development.
  • Parental resilience.
  • Social connections.
  • Concrete supports for parents.
  • Social and emotional competence of children.

How is a risk factor defined?

Something that increases the chance of developing a disease. Some examples of risk factors for cancer are age, a family history of certain cancers, use of tobacco products, being exposed to radiation or certain chemicals, infection with certain viruses or bacteria, and certain genetic changes.

What is the risk factors of school?

  • Parental criminality.
  • Child maltreatment.
  • Poor family management practices.
  • Low parental involvement.
  • Peer family bonding.
  • Family conflict.
  • Parental attitudes favorable to substance abuse and violence.

What are 6 risk factors for violence quizlet?

What are six risk factors for violence? Poverty, family violence, exposure to media violence, availability of weapons, drug abuse, and membership in gangs.

What are three risk factors that contribute to intimate violence?

  • Low self-esteem.
  • Low income.
  • Low academic achievement.
  • Young age.
  • Aggressive or delinquent behavior as a youth.
  • Heavy alcohol and drug use.
  • Depression.
  • Anger and hostility.

Who is at risk for abuse?

Children and adults with care and support needs are more likely to be at risk of abuse. Adults can be at risk because of a number of reasons. They may: be getting older.

What are the 4 uncontrollable risk factors?

  • Age (the risk increases with age)
  • Gender (men develop CAD 10 years earlier than women)
  • Family history (genetic predisposition and common lifestyles increase risk)
  • Race (incidence is greater in some groups of African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, native American Indians,)

What are the risk factors associated with coronary heart disease?

  • Age. Getting older increases your risk of damaged and narrowed arteries.
  • Sex. Men are generally at greater risk of coronary artery disease. …
  • Family history. …
  • Smoking. …
  • High blood pressure. …
  • High blood cholesterol levels. …
  • Diabetes. …
  • Overweight or obesity.

What is the most important risk factor for coronary heart disease?

The traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease are high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, family history, diabetes, smoking, being post-menopausal for women and being older than 45 for men, according to Fisher. Obesity may also be a risk factor.

How many risk factors are there?

Types of risk factors. There are 3 different types of risk factors that must be distinguished from each other in planning prevention initiatives.

What are the two main categories of risk factors?

Broadly speaking, there are two main categories of risk: systematic and unsystematic. Systematic risk is the market uncertainty of an investment, meaning that it represents external factors that impact all (or many) companies in an industry or group.

What is the risk factors of individual?

  • History of violent victimization.
  • Attention deficits, hyperactivity, or learning disorders.
  • History of early aggressive behavior.
  • Involvement with drugs, alcohol, or tobacco.
  • Low IQ.
  • Poor behavioral control.
  • Deficits in social cognitive or information-processing abilities.
  • High emotional distress.

What is static risk factor?

Static risk factors are features of the offenders’ histories that predict recidivism but are not amenable to deliberate intervention, such as prior offences. In contrast, dynamic risk factors are potentially changeable factors, such as substance abuse and negative peer associations.

What are some examples of static risk factors?

Static risk factors are factors that do not change or which change in only one direction. Examples of these risk factors include age, which increases over time, and past criminal offences, which are fixed.

What is static risk?

Definition: risk that can be transferred to an insurer such as the risk of fire, vandalism, etc. Pronunciation: \ˈsta-tik\ \ˈrisk\ Used in a Sentence: Because a fire is considered a static risk, the insurance would cover any losses.

What is victim risk?

A Forensic Psychological study of the Human cost to the Victims’ Families… those families unfortunate enough to experience the ‘Trauma’… … Victimology is simply establishing a degree of that person’s risk of becoming a ‘Victim’…as a function of his or her personal, professional or social life.

What is a risk needs assessment?

A risk/needs assessment tool is essentially a uniform report card that measures offenders’ criminal risk factors and specific needs that, if addressed, will reduce the likelihood of future criminal activity. … The tool then calculates an overall score that classifies an individual’s risk of reoffending.

What is a medium risk offender?

Medium – There are identifiable indicators of risk of serious harm. The person has the potential to cause serious harm but is unlikely to do so unless there is a change in circumstances.

How do risk factors correlate to youth crime?

Family characteristics such as poor parenting skills, family size, home discord, child maltreatment, and antisocial parents are risk factors linked to juvenile delinquency (Derzon and Lipsey, 2000; Wasserman and Seracini, 2001).

What are 3 causes of crime for juveniles?

  • School Problems.
  • Economic Problems.
  • Substance Abuse – Home Life.
  • Substance Abuse – Personal.
  • Physical Abuse At Home.
  • Lack Of Adult Interaction.
  • Peer Pressure – Neighborhood Influence.

What are the risk and protective factors of juvenile delinquency?

These factors include parenting, mal- treatment, family violence, divorce, parental psychopathology, familial anti- social behaviors, teenage parenthood, family structure, and family size. Inadequate parenting practices are among the most powerful predictors of early antisocial behavior (e.g., Hawkins et al., 1998).