What did Abraham Flexner contribute to medical education

Author of the monumental survey Medical Education in the United States and Canada (1910), Abraham Flexner contributed to a period of reform in American medical education that hastened the closing of commercial medical schools and strengthened university-affiliated institutions adopting scientific approaches.


How did Flexner contribute to medical education?

Flexner drew heavily, but not exclusively, on the standards for medical education previously developed by other organizations. He visited 155 medical schools in the United States and Canada between December 1908 and April 1910. … The remaining schools had higher entrance requirements, longer terms, and better resources.

What was the Flexner Report and what was its impact on medical education and black medical schools?

The 1910 Flexner Report examined medical education and suggested reform for medical colleges, which included increasing standards, partnering with hospitals for clinical training, and closing schools that could not afford to update and maintain facilities.

What impact did the Flexner Report have on black medical schools?

After the Flexner Report’s publication, diminished numbers of Black medical schools, combined with anti-Black racism (eg, segregation laws and practices), limited how Black Americans could serve the nation.

What did the Flexner Report say?

In his report, Flexner wrote that African-American physicians should be trained in “hygiene rather than surgery” and should primarily serve as “sanitarians,” whose purpose was “protecting whites” from common diseases like tuberculosis.

Why was the Flexner Report written?

The Flexner Report is a book-length landmark report of medical education in the United States and Canada, written by Abraham Flexner and published in 1910 under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation. … The report talked about the need for revamping and centralizing medical institutions.

What is the Flexner Report and its importance to healthcare quizlet?

Flexner report assessed the entrance requirements, the size and training of the faculty, endowment fees, the quality of laboratories, and the relationship between medical schools and hospitals.

Are Simon Flexner and Abraham Flexner related?

Early life and career He was the fourth son of seven in a large family of nine children: Jacob Flexner, Henry, and Isadore; then Simon, followed by Bernard Flexner, Abraham Flexner, and Washington. The two sisters Mary and Gertrude were the youngest.

Who commissioned the Flexner Report?

Already by 1910 America’s 166 medical schools had been reduced in number to 126. This atmosphere of national concern for the quality of American medical education prompted the Carnegie Foundation to commission Abraham Flexner to conduct a comprehensive, independent study of the nation’s medical schools.

How many medical schools closed after the Flexner Report?

The Flexner report seemed to have a substantial impact on medical schools. Within 20 years after the report’s publication, the original 131 medical schools from 1910 were reduced to 76, although not 31 as Flexner originally suggested.

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What was medical education like before the Flexner Report?

Before his report, most medical schools were run like barber colleges, and Flexner more or less made medical schools get into the university system or shut down.

How many schools did the Flexner Report close?

The resulting Flexner Report of 1910 refocused medical education around the scientific method, encouraged education at academic institutions, and discouraged training through for-profit proprietary schools. Subsequently, all but 66 schools shut down, including five of seven then-extant Black medical schools.

How do you think the Flexner Report impacted health care in the US?

The Flexner Report triggered much-needed reforms in the standards, organization, and curriculum of North American medical schools. At the time of the Report, many medical schools were proprietary schools operated more for profit than for education.

Why did Rockefeller fund the Flexner Report?

Certainly, Flexner’s report did have some valid points, but unfortunately the motives for the report were entirely driven my Rockefeller’s desire for complete control of the medical system. Based on the report, congress acted upon the Flexner’s recommendations and changed laws related to medical practice.

Which of the following was the first medical school in America?

The first medical school in the United States opened in 1765 at the College of Philadelphia by John Morgan and William Shippen Jr.; this school developed over time into the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine.

Which organization was responsible for standardizing medical education in the US?

In the 19th century, most medical education in the United States was administered through 1 of 3 basic systems: an apprenticeship system, in which students received hands-on instruction from a local practitioner; a proprietary school system, in which groups of students attended a course of lectures from physicians who …

What is a hospitalist do?

A hospitalist specializes in diagnosing and treating a wide variety of illnesses. They do work similar to the work your primary care doctor does — just in a hospital setting. For example, they may order medications or testing, such as X-rays. … They specialize in communication, rapid diagnosis, and acute medical care.

What are the four black medical schools in the United States?

The money started to flow in September when former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced a $100 million gift to be distributed for scholarships for current students at the four historically Black medical schools: Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee; Howard University College of Medicine in

What is required for an individual to be eligible to provide direct patient care?

To provide direct patient care, physicians are required to do all of the following except: participate in approved collaborative training programs with allied health professionals. … increasingly complex health insurance and information technology demands on private practice.

Is medicine in the United States a social institution?

Medicine is the social institution that seeks both to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness and to promote health as just defined. Dissatisfaction with the medical establishment has been growing.

How many medical schools are there in the United States?

There are currently 155 accredited MD-granting institutions, and 37 accredited DO-granting institutions in the United States.

What is the biomedical approach to health?

A biomedical model is a surrogate for a human being, or a human biologic system, that can be used to understand normal and abnormal function from gene to phenotype and to provide a basis for preventive or therapeutic intervention in human diseases.

How many medical schools today are dedicated to the training of black physicians?

The four HBCU medical schools produced 206 Black graduates in 2018–2019, representing 14% of the total Black medical school graduates. There are 141 accredited medical schools and the 4 historically black schools produced 14% of the Black graduates.

What was the significance of Abraham Flexner's report on the status of social work as a profession?

Flexner (1915) asserted that social work could not be considered a profession because it lacked (1) the decision-making authority in the critical thinking process, (2) a definite purpose, and (3) a purposefully organized educational discipline.

What is the 1st step in moving to a competency based medical education system?

[1] The shift from the old style of medical education, referred to as “Structure/Process” education, originally outlined by Abraham Flexner in 1910, [2] to a competency-based system of education requires four components: (1) identifying the outcomes; (2) defining performance levels for each competency; (3) developing a

How long was medical school in the 1920s?

By the 1920s the four years of medical school were compartmentalized into two years of basic sciences taught by discipline and two years of clinical training.

When was medical education standardized?

In 1847, the American Medical Association (AMA) was established and later the AMA Council of Medical Education (CME) was initiated, ultimately providing a standardized medical school curriculum in 1904 [1].

How many HBCU medical schools are there?

ListedOur 2018 ranking contains 57 HBCU medical colleges in USA.

Is medicine a humanity?

Medical humanities is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (philosophy, ethics, history, comparative literature and religion), social science ( psychology, sociology, anthropology, cultural studies, health geography) and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their …

Which of the following is required to establish medical malpractice?

The injured patient must show that the physician acted negligently in rendering care, and that such negligence resulted in injury. To do so, four legal elements must be proven: (1) a professional duty owed to the patient; (2) breach of such duty; (3) injury caused by the breach; and (4) resulting damages.