What is the encoding specificity theory

The encoding specificity principle shows that memories are linked to the context in which they are created. It states that it’s easier to recall information when you are in the same context in which you memorized or studied it.

What are the three types of encoding specificity?

There are many types of memory encoding, but the three main types are visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding.

What is the encoding specificity principle and how does it relate to the performance of motor skills?

The encoding specificity principle states that memory test performance is directly related to the amount of similarity between the practice and the test contexts. i.e. the more similarity, the better the test performance will be.

Which of the following is an example of the encoding specificity principle?

Which of the following is an example of the encoding specificity principle? Taking the state math exam at another high school and being unable to remember tips you could always recall in your teacher’s classroom.

Who proposed the interference theory?

John A. Bergström is credited as conducting the first study regarding interference in 1892. His experiment was similar to the Stroop task and required subjects to sort two decks of card with words into two piles.

What is an example of visual encoding?

Visual Encoding refers to the process by which we remember visual images. For example, if you are presented a list of words, each shown for one second, you would be able to remember if there was a word that was written in all capital letters, or if there was a word written in italics.

What is cue overload principle?

the principle that a retrieval cue starts to lose its effectiveness in aiding recall as items associated with that particular cue increase in number.

What is the encoding specificity principle tutor2u?

The encoding specificity principle argues that memory is most effective when information that was present at the time of coding is also present at the time of retrieval.

HOW IS STM encoded?

Evidence suggests that this is the principle coding system in short-term memory (STM) is acoustic coding. When a person is presented with a list of numbers and letters, they will try to hold them in STM by rehearsing them (verbally). … However, information in LTM can also be coded both visually and acoustically.

Which of the following individuals is credited with discovering classical conditioning?

Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist best known in psychology for his discovery of classical conditioning. During his studies on the digestive systems of dogs, Pavlov noted that the animals salivated naturally upon the presentation of food.

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Which of the following researchers is known for having done groundbreaking work in the area of eyewitness memory?

Elizabeth Loftus is one of those eminent psychologists famous for her ground breaking works and contributions in fields of cognitive psychology and human memory. Born in Los Angeles on October 16th, 1944 she completed BA in Psychology and Mathematics from University of California, Los Angeles.

What did Ebbinghaus measure in his memory research?

Ebbinghaus measured the strength of memory by the savings that occurred between the first and second learning periods. It might take 10 trials to learn a list to the criterion of two perfect recalls the first time.

Which memory is semantic?

Semantic memory is a category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of ideas, concepts and facts commonly regarded as general knowledge. Examples of semantic memory include factual information such as grammar and algebra.

How does her model relate specifically to learning open and closed skills?

Gentile’s model relates to learning open and closed skills specifically. In the second stage of Gentile’s model, the learner’s goal depends on the type of skill, either closed or open. If the skill being learned is closed, then during the second stage, the goal is fixation.

What is reconsolidation in psychology?

n. the neurobiological stabilization of a reactivated memory. Research suggests that reconsolidation is necessary each time a memory is reactivated and that, prior to reconsolidation, the memory is unstable and susceptible to being changed or lost.

Who discovered retroactive interference?

Muller and Pilzecker (1900) were the first to describe retroactive interference and the basic methodology for studying it. They presented participants with a list of word pairs to be recalled later.

Who gave the concept of retroactive inhibition?

The first systematic study of retroactive inhibition dates back to MUller and Pilzecker (1900) who coined the term (rUckwirkende Hemmung).

What theorist was a pioneer in the research on forgetting during the late 1800s?

Hermann Ebbinghaus (24 January 1850 – 26 February 1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect.

Can flashbulb memories be forgotten?

Evidence has shown that although people are highly confident in their memories, the details of the memories can be forgotten. Flashbulb memories are one type of autobiographical memory.

What is distinctiveness in psychology?

Distinctiveness, in attribution, refers to the extent to which a specific action engaged in by an individual is unusual or uncommon for that particular individual.

What is retroactive interference psychology?

Retroactive interference (retro=backward) occurs when you forget a previously learnt task due to the learning of a new task. In other words, later learning interferes with earlier learning – where new memories disrupt old memories. … Also new learning can sometimes cause confusion with previous learning.

Who discovered visual encoding?

Visual Images Gordon Bower and David Winzenz (1970) demonstrated the use of imagery and encoding in their research while using paired-associate learning. Researchers gave participants a list of 15-word-pairs, showing each participant the word pair for 5 seconds for each pair.

Who proposed the picture superiority effect?

Allan Paivio (1971) explains this principle with the theory of “dual coding”: that we retain images better than words because they are coded twice in our memory. Paivio explains that our memories take in information using two different codes: “verbal” codes and “image” codes.

Where does visual encoding take place?

The creation of mental pictures is one way people use visual encoding. This type of information is temporarily stored in iconic memory, and then is moved to long-term memory for storage. The amygdala plays a large role in the visual encoding of memories.

Who said semantic encoding is the best?

Material is far better encoded when you make it meaningful. There are three types of encoding. The encoding of words and their meaning is known as semantic encoding. It was first demonstrated by William Bousfield (1935) in an experiment in which he asked people to memorize words.

Where are memories encoded?

Information is channelled to the hippocampus, the brain region crucial for the formation of new memories and one of the only places in the brain where brand new neurons are regularly generated. The hippocampus links all of the relevant information together and encodes it into a new memory by forming new synapses.

What is semantic encoding?

cognitive encoding of new information that focuses on its meaningful aspects as opposed to its perceptual characteristics. This will usually involve some form of elaboration.

Who created the multi store model of memory?

Modules one and two begin by introducing the two main ways in which memory has been conceptualised by cognitive psychologists: the multi-store memory model, developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968, and the working memory model, developed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974.

Why is STM encoded acoustically?

Encoding acoustically is generally thought to be the dominant method for coding information stored in STM. … Encoding semantically involves using current knowledge to give meaning to information, for example knowing that the start of the phone number you are trying to remember represents a particular area of the country.

How is the sensory register coded?

There are separate sensory registers for each sense: the iconic store codes visual information and the echoic store codes auditory information. Information only lasts for a brief moment unless attention is directed to that register, which then transfers the information to STM.

What is Skinner's theory?

The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual’s response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. … Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner’s S-R theory.