# What structure in the forward region of the ship combats the effects of panting

Addressing panting is an essential component of ship design. It is typically countered by reinforcing the bow and the stern with beams and stringers.

## At what part of the ship are panting frames located?

Panting is an in and out motion of the plating which occurs at the end of the vessel due to the variation in water pressure as the vessel pitches in a seaway. The effect is accentuated at the bow when making headway.

## Where are panting stringers located on ship?

Panting stringers are longitudinal stiffening members formed in a closed rounded-triangular shape (peak being the fore end) by the side stringers on both sides and the collision bulkhead at its end. A perforated bulkhead often exists at the centreline.

## Which parts of the ship is affected by panting stress?

Panting: When waves hit the bow and stern of a ship, they create variations in pressure that tend to push the plating in and out. This is panting. The framing at the ship’s ends must be reinforced to prevent exaggerated movement of the hull plating.

## What are panting beams?

A beam fitted athwartship in the bow or stern of a vessel to prevent panting of the sides.

## What is aft end structure of a ship?

The aft end of a ship terminates the structure and is designed to provide a smooth water flow ioto and away from the propeller. It also provides a greater deck area aft and is currently much used for a variety of ship types. …

## Which part of the ship provides a forward motion and much needed thrust propel the ship?

There can be one, two or three propellers. It is the most important part of the ship without which a ship can’t move. So, the main function of the propeller is to propel the ship in the forward direction by producing thrust on water. Its working principles are Newton’s third law of motion and Bernoulli’s theorem.

## How hogging and sagging stresses are caused by the sea state?

Dynamic stress Hogging is the stress a ship’s hull or keel experiences that causes the center or the keel to bend upward. Sagging is the stress a ship’s hull or keel is placed under when a wave is the same length as the ship and the ship is in the trough of two waves.

## When the ship is heaving and pitching in heavy weather the slamming effect on the forward region of the ship is called?

In heavy weather when the ship is heaving and pitching, the fore end emerges from the water and reenters with a slamming effect which is called pounding.

What is panting and pounding of ship?

At sea, the forward part of shell plating is subjected to panting ( movement like breathing in – breathing out ) due to varying water pressure due to encountering waves and pounding due to slamming in heavy weather.

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## What is stiffener in ship?

Stiffeners are secondary plates or sections which are attached to beam webs or flanges to stiffen them against out of plane deformations. Almost all main bridge beams will have stiffeners.

## What is structural member of a ship?

While common visible parts of a ship are; rudder, anchor, bow, keel, accommodation, propeller, mast, bridge, hatch covers, and bow thrusters. On another hand invisible but structural part of the ship consists of; bulkheads, frames, cargo holds, hopper tank, double bottom, girders, cofferdams, side shell, etc.

## What do you call the rotational motion of a ship about transverse axis?

Rolling is a rotation around a longitudinal axis, pitching is a rotation around the transverse axis and yawing is a rotation around the vertical axis.

## What is the function of stern frame?

Description. The importance of the stern frame lies in the fact that it supports the tailshaft and the rudder of a ship. In older ships, the stern frame was cast and then welded to the ship’s outer-shell plating. It is the usual practice that the stern frame is made at a location away from the shipyard.

## What is the vertical spacing between side stringers in panting area?

1. Side stringers spaced vertically about 2 m apart and supported by struts or beams fitted at alternate frames. These ‘panting beams’ are connected to the frames by brackets and if long may be supported at the ship’s center line by a partial wash bulkhead.

## How do we determine the forward and afterward part of the vessel?

The maritime industry has its own language when it comes to naming parts of a ship. The forward of a ship is just as it sounds: It’s the most forward side, at the front of a cruise ship, facing the bow. The rear of a ship, at the direction of a ship’s stern, is called the aft.

## What is the front part of a ship called?

Bow : Front of a boat. Stern : Rear of a boat. Starboard : Right side of a boat.

## Which is the ship's structure to reduce water resistance?

By improving the flow around the stern of the ship the hull resistance can be reduced. Flow improving devices such as stern flaps can be attached to do the same. The other important thing to be considered while designing the stern is the type of stern whether a transom or a cruiser or an elliptical etc.

## What is the aft end?

Aft is defined as the rear end of a ship or aircraft. An example of aft is the opposite end of ship from the front.

## Is the left side of the ship when facing the bow is called?

When looking forward, toward the bow of a ship, port and starboard refer to the left and right sides, respectively. In the early days of boating, before ships had rudders on their centerlines, boats were controlled using a steering oar.

## What is the function of a collision bulkhead?

The collision bulkhead is a heavily strengthened structure, its main purpose being limiting the damage of a head-on collision to the part of the bow forward to it. To limit the damage to its forward region also means that the collision bulkhead is watertight bulkhead.

## What is slamming of ship?

Slamming is the impact of the bottom structure of a ship onto the sea surface. It is mainly observed while sailing in waves, when the bow raises from the water and subsequently impacts on it. Slamming induces extremely high loads to ship structures and is taken into consideration when designing ships.

## What are the 3 basic motion of the ship?

• Yawing (Vertical rotation – Z-axis)
• Rolling (Longitudinal rotation – X-axis)
• Pitching (Transverse rotation – Y-axis)

## What is sagging in ship?

A condition where the bow and stern are supported by buoyancy and the ship’s middle portion is not. The upper deck is under compression, the bottom under tension. Sagging can be caused by the cargo loading pattern or when the ship is in a seaway and the bow and stern sections are supported on adjacent wave crests.

## What is hogging and sagging bending moment?

The bending moment which causes a beam to bend with the concave side upwards, is called a Sagging Bending Moment. … On the other hand, the bending moment which causes a beam to bend with the concave side upwards is called a Hogging Bending Moment. This kind of a bending moment is treated as a negative bending moment.

## How do ships reduce stress?

Seafarers need to take care of their own mental health while on board. Key steps to overcome stress on board are: Think positively: always keep in mind positive thoughts and do more of what makes you happy. Talk and discuss: try not to be lonely and discuss as much as possible your thoughts with others.

## How do I stop sagging and hogging?

How to Avoid Hogging and sagging? On a large containership, those responsible for loading the ship have to take care to avoid straining the vessel’s hull. If too much weight is placed amidships the vessel will sag. As the vessel cannot submerge her load line mark amidships she will not be able to load her full cargo.

## What is panting of ship?

Panting refers to the tendency of steel hull plating to flex in and out like an oil can being squeezed when a ship is pitching. This occurs when a ship is making headway in waves. Panting creates significant stress on a ship’s hull. … The British battleship HMS Rodney suffered significant leaking from panting.

## What are the various sections used for the stiffening of the vessel?

The prime stiffening members are longitudinally running bulb sections or angle sections. The stiffeners on the bottom plating are called outer bottom longitudinals, and those that stiffen the tank top plating are called tank top longitudinals. The span of each longitudinal is equal to three of four frame spaces.

## What are stiffeners used for?

Stiffeners are employed to resist lateral loading of the plate and are usually made from the rolled shapes integrally welded to the plate. Such stiffeners are distinct from the other stiffeners used to prevent plate buckling.

## What is ships structure?

Ship structure is a box girder composed of stiffened plates such as deck plating, side shell plating, and bottom plating. … The deck plating is stiffened by longitudinal stiffeners, girders, deck beams, and frames, and can be regarded as an orthogonally stiffened panel.